Federated state of the western USA (251,419 km 2 with 3,790,060 inhabitants in 2008). Capital Salem. It overlooks the Pacific Ocean and is bordered to the north by the State of Washington, at east with the Idaho, to the south with the Nevada and California; the northern border is largely marked by the river Columbia and the eastern one from the Snake River. The territory is characterized by two very different regions: to the east a plateau, rich in lake basins and interrupted by mountainous trunks, to the west imposing reliefs, such as the Coastal chain (Coast Range) and the Chain of Cascades (Cascade Range), which culminates here with Mount Hood (3421 m). In the north-eastern area of the territory the Blue Mountains. The economy is mainly based on the exploitation of forests; active farming (cattle), agriculture and fishing (salmon). Metallurgical, chemical and paper industries. Main city in the state is Portland.
Although the Russians from the North, the Spaniards from the South and the British, in search of the ‘North-West passage’, had already touched the shores, the region was only minutely explored in 1774 by the Spaniard J. Pérez. In the first half of the 19th century. sovereignty over the territory was claimed by Spain and Russia, but above all from the USA and Great Britain; a definitive solution was reached only with the Treaty of the Oregon (1846), for which Britain recognized US rights in the region. In 1848 the Territory of the Oregon, which also included the current states of Washington (detached in 1853), Idaho (detached in 1863), and parts of Wyoming and Montana. With today’s borders the Oregon was admitted to the Union in 1859.
According to abbreviationfinder, the state’s population increased from 13,294 residents in 1850 to 174,768 in 1880, to 413,536 in 1900, to 672,765 in 1910, to 783,389 in 1920, to 953,786 in 1930. It lives distributed in 35 counties, of very different economic and demographic capacity: the average general density in 1930 was 3, 8 ab. per sq km: but, while the south-eastern counties, with a semi-arid climate, have very low values (the counties of Malheur and Harney have 0.4 inhabitants per sq. km), the counties of the west and Columbia, in better environmental conditions, have considerable densities: the highest value is offered by the county of Multnomah with over 300 residents per sq. km. In this case, however, the very high figure is due to the presence of the only large center in the state, Portland (301,815 residents). Beyond Portland, there are over 10,000 inhabitants, Astoria (10,349), Eugene (18,901),
Ethnically the state presented the following figures in 1930: Bianchi 937.029 (98.3%), Negri 2234 (0.2%); other races 14,523 (1.5%). Indigenous Whites born to foreign parents made up 87.2%; 11.1% of whites born abroad (105,475 individuals). From the agricultural point of view, there are profound differences between part and part: the number of farms it was 55,153 in 1930, and their surface in that year represented 27% of the surface of the entire state, but while in the south-eastern counties, with an arid climate, this value is always kept below the average one, the counties bordering the Columbia River and the western ones offer high percentages. Irrigation has developed considerably and is especially widespread in the Snake basin and its tributaries, in the Umatilla and Deschutes river basins, and in the southern closed basins.
According to countryaah, Oregon has the following main cities:
The most populous city in the state of Oregon (United States), the capital of Multnomah County, located on both banks of the Willamette River, about 21 kilometers from its confluence with the Columbia River and 182 kilometers. from the Pacific Ocean. It has a temperate climate, with an average temperature of 11 °, 7 °; winters are mild (4th in January); summers that are not too hot (19th, 4th in July); abundant rainfall, equal to 1140 mm., distributed in every month of the year, with absolute prevalence of the winter period; scarce snow, equal to 375 mm. yearly; winds of northwest prevail. The city, founded in 1845, has a very notable demographic increase: 2874 residents in 1860, 90,426 in 1900, 207,214 in 1910, 258,288 in 1920, 301,815 in 1930. year the ethnic composition of its population was as follows: Indigenous whites and born to foreign parents 82.1%; Whites born abroad 16%; Negroes and other races 1.9%. Of the Whites born abroad (total of 48,336 individuals) the most important nuclei were Canadians (7814), British, Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish (6800), Germans (5283), Swedes (4885), Russians (4472), Norwegians (3025) and Italians (2988). The city has great industrial and commercial importance, favored by excellent geographical conditions (natural routes of the highest order; great abundance of hydroelectric energy offered by the falls of the Willamette River in Oregon City, 19 km away from Portland): in 1930 they were occupied in the various activities 145,435 people over the age of 10, of which 30% in crafts and industries, 29, 4 in transport and trade. 8635 workers were employed in large industry in 1890, 12,214 in 1909, 21,380 in 1929. The fundamental industry is that relating to wood processing, followed by the furniture factory and foundries. The city has great importance as a port and commercial center: it is equipped with 85 piers, distributed along the banks of the Willamette river, which can also be ascended by large steamers, having a depth, at low tide, of 8-9 meters. In foreign trade, imports mainly concern copra, coal, coffee, cotton, while exports include wheat and flour, timber, fresh and preserved fruit, etc. The city is an important railway junction and an important aviation center: over fifty shipping lines connect Portland with all the main ports in the world.
The town rises in beautiful terraces and dominates a picturesque view of the snowy peaks of Mount Hood and other peaks of the Cascade range. It has vast parks and several buildings of fine architecture: among these is the male dormitory of Reed College, designed, in the Gothic style, by Doyle and Petterson; and a part of the public library, in Italian Gothic style, the work of Ellis F. Lawrence.