Falkland Islands (Malvinen), archipelago in the South Atlantic, with two large and over 200 small islands, 12 173 km 2, with (2016) 3 032 residents; The main town is Port Stanley.
The harsh climate and the barren vegetation only allow sheep to be raised. Argentina also lays claim to the Falkland Islands, which have been British (a crown colony) since 1833. In 1982 the Argentine attempt to take the islands by force (Falklands War) ended with a military defeat.
According to abbreviationfinder, Falkland Islands are islands in the South Atlantic with (2016) 3032 population (without British contingent); The capital is Stanley.
The Falkland Islands are located around 600 km east of the coast of Argentina, in the British overseas territory with limited internal self-government. The island state has a land area of 12 173 km 2.
The population is almost entirely of British descent. 57.0% (2012) described themselves as Falcon countries, 24.6% as British, 9.8% as Saint Helenians and 5.3% as Chileans. The official language is English. 87.3% of the population use it as a colloquial language, 11.8% speak Spanish at home. In 1983 the islanders received full British civil rights. Education and medical care are well developed.
The Falkland Islands consist of the main islands of East and West Falkland and over 200 small islands; with the surrounding islands, East Falkland covers 6,760 km 2, West Falkland 5 413 km 2. The two main islands, which are separated by the average 20 km wide Falklandsund, have the relief of a table land; in Mount Usborne on East Falkland it is 708 m above sea level and in Mount Adam on West Falkland 705 m above sea level. Geologically, the Falkland Islands, made up of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks, belong closer to Brazil and Antarctica than to the closer Patagonia. The climate is oceanic with mild winters and cool summers (average temperature in Stanley in July 1.7 ° C, in January 9.4 ° C) and frequent precipitation (annual rainfall 681 mm); strong west wind is characteristic. The vegetation consists of treeless grassy areas, heaths and moors; the natural vegetation was almost destroyed by extensive livestock farming (around 500,000 sheep). Sheep wool is the most important export product. Except for meat and fish, all food, consumer goods and equipment must be imported. Most of the revenue comes from fishing licenses (since 1987) within a 150 mile zone that was expanded to 200 miles in 1993. In addition to fishing, tourism (almost 70,000 visitors a year) is the most important branch of the economy. An agreement was signed with Argentina in 1995 for the use of the offshore oil and gas deposits. There are all-weather roads only around Stanley and from there to Port Louis and Mount Pleasant Airport, which was completed in 1986 (54 km from Stanley, flight connections to Great Britain and Punta Arenas in Chile). Stanley Airfield is used for domestic air traffic. There are ship connections with Great Britain four to five times a year.
History: The Falkland Islands, the first discovery of which is not clear, were named in 1690 by the English captain John Strong after the politician Lucius Cary, Viscount Falkland (* 1609/10, † 1643), by French sailors from Saint-Malo after their hometown as »Les Îles Malouines« denotes, from which the Spanish name originated. In 1764, under the leadership of L.-A. de Bougainville settled on East Falkland, 1765 British on West Falkland. Both were expelled by the Spaniards shortly afterwards. In 1826 the La Plata Confederation (Argentina) took possession of the islands, which were abandoned by the Spanish in 1811. In 1833 Great Britain occupied the Falkland Islands and later rejected all claims by Argentina to these islands; Argentina sees itself as the legal successor of Spain on this issue to this day. During the First World War, a British battlecruiser under Vice Admiral F. D. Sturdee won the “Sea Battle of the Falkland Islands” on December 8, 1914 over a German cruiser squadron led by Vice Admiral Graf Spee, which had recently defeated British naval forces at Coronel. Under the name of Falkland Islands and Dependencies, the Falkland Islands with South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (16,260 km 2 in total) were administered as a British overseas territory until 1985. In 1965, the General Assembly of the UN called on Great Britain and Argentina, taking into account the interests of the people living on the Falkland Islands, to peacefully clarify their nationality, which is disputed under international law. With the occupation of the Falkland Islands at the beginning of April 1982, Argentina sought a military solution to the Falklands question and thus solved the Falklands War the end. Although diplomatic relations between Argentina and Great Britain were resumed in 1989 and an agreement between the two countries on the exploitation of oil reserves in the southern Atlantic was signed in 1995, Argentina has not yet waived its claims. In a consultative referendum on March 10th and 11th, 2013, 99.8% of the residents of the Falkland Islands with voting rights were in favor of remaining with Great Britain.
Stanley [ stænli], formerly Port Stanley [p ɔ ː t -], capital of the British Falkland Islands, on the east coast of the island of East Falkland, (2016) 2634 residents.
Port, airfield for domestic air traffic. Christ Church Cathedral (consecrated in 1892). Until 1914 (opening of the Panama Canal ) important anchorage in the South Atlantic on the shipping route around Cape Horn; formerly important station for whaling; base of the British navy during World War II.