US state, in New England (12,997 km 2 with 3,502,309 inhabitants in 2007); capital Hartford. By surface it is the third last in the Union, but it is one of the most densely populated (269.5 inhabitants / km 2). The territory, which includes the northern coast of Long Island and the lower basins of the Housatonic and Connecticut rivers, rises with a gentle slope towards the interior, forming a wide inclined plane (maximum height of Mount Bear, 718 m). The population is largely urban (almost 80%), concentrated in the capital and in the cities of Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury and Stamford. Discrete agriculture and livestock farming; the quarries for building materials are important. Remarkable industry (fabrics, clothes, leather and metals, electrical material, cars, bicycles, aircraft engines); developed the high-tech sector and the tertiary sector, in particular the advanced one.
According to abbreviationfinder, the colony of Connecticut was founded in the 17th century by the Dutch and the English. Ruled by fundamental orders (1639), based on popular sovereignty, it preserved the characteristics of the other Puritan colonies: religious tone, sense of individual freedom, defense of self-government. The royal charter of 1662 gave Connecticut a considerable internal freedom. It was one of the main centers of the struggle for independence and for the unionist cause (18th-19th century). In 1776 it was organized as a state.
According to countryaah, Connecticut has the following main cities:
The second largest city in the state of Connecticut (United States) by number of inhabitants, capital of the county of the same name, located on the northern coast of Long Island Sound, indented by the estuaries of the Quinnipiac, Mill and West rivers, 114 km away. east of New York City. The climate has continental characteristics, with an average annual temperature of 10 °, with cold winters (January −2 °, 2), hot summers (July 22 °, 3), and with enormous differences between absolute minimums (−25 °, 6) and absolute maximums (37 °, 8); abundant snow (over 1000 mm. per year) like the rains (1180 mm.), distributed in every month of the year. The city had 4049 inhabitants in 1800, 20,345 in 1850, 62,882 in 1880, 108,027 in 1900, 162,537 in 1920, 162,655 in 1930. In that year the indigenous Whites were 27.5%; those born to foreign parents, 44, 5%; whites born abroad 24.6%; little element of color (3.3%). Whites born abroad in 1930 totaled 40,091 individuals, of which 14,510 Italians, 5987 Russians, 5028 Irish from the Free State, 3140 Poles, etc. The city has considerable industries: wages rose from 15,900 in 1890 to 25,000 in 1909, to 30,874 in 1919, to drop to 24,974 in 1929. Firearms and ammunition industries prevail; small metal parts, mechanical industries (repairs of railway material, sewing machines, etc.); those relating to clothing (shirts, bustiers, etc.), rubber, etc. Overall, in 1930, 69,238 people were employed in various economic activities. New Haven is served by an excellent port, consisting of the Main Harbor, a body of water over 3 km long. and wide from 1600 to 2400 meters, which extends up to the Tomlinson Bridge, at the mouth of the Quinnipiac and Mill rivers, and from the lower course of the aforementioned rivers: altogether 65 between piers, docks and basins work. The main traffic items concern coal, timber, cement and fertilizers. Regular shipping lines connect New Haven with New York. The city is also served by urban and interurban power lines and by the lines of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, whose offices are located in New Haven. Regular shipping lines connect New Haven with New York. The city is also served by urban and interurban power lines and by the lines of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, whose offices are located in New Haven. Regular shipping lines connect New Haven with New York. The city is also served by urban and interurban power lines and by the lines of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, whose offices are located in New Haven.
Monuments. – Two parks, East Rock and West Rock, line New Haven. It has its center in the Green, a large square on which are the oldest churches in the city: the Center Church, the United Church and Trinity Church. The Taft Hotel and the offices of the Union and New Haven Trust Companies are modern skyscrapers, strangely at odds with the other buildings on the Green. Behind the Center Church is the monument to regicide John Dixwell.
At the southwestern corner of the Green is the Bennett Fountain, a copy of the Lysicrates monument in Athens.
The streets of New Haven are regularly arranged with their squares, around the Green, according to John Brockett’s original master plan. Among the old houses of New Haven the following are notable: Jones House, 1755; Pierpont House, 1764, which contains rare memoirs and prints; Trowbridge House, erected in 1642 and rebuilt in 1822. The New Ives Memorial Library building, designed by Cass Gilbert, is a fine example of modern colonial architecture. The Federal Building, on Church Street, south of the Green, the new courthouse building (Court House at the northeast corner of Elm Street and Church Street, and the Connecticut Savings Institution are modern buildings inspired by Roman architecture classical.
Yale University buildings, like others in New Haven, are of various architectural styles. Connecticut Hall, the oldest of the university buildings, is built of brick, with simple and beautiful proportions. The more recent university buildings are built for the most part in the Gothic style, more or less modified to suit the purposes for which the buildings are intended. These include: the ancient library, a beautiful example of Gothic style, remodeled and transformed into a chapel (Timothy Dwight Chapel); and the Harkness Memorial Quadrangle, designed by James Gamble Rogers, completed in 1921. It constitutes the most remarkable example of neo-Gothic for school buildings in America and part of it, the Wrexam Tower, deserves a place among the greatest neo-Gothic buildings in the world.
Yale’s valuable art collections are collected in the Gallery of Fine Arts (1928), designed by Egerton Swartwout in a primitive Italian Gothic style. The Jarves collection, housed in the gallery, contains works by Margaritone d’Arezzo, Lorenzo Monaco, Sassetta, Baldovinetti, Pollaiuolo, Ghirlandaio; as well as paintings by Guido Reni, Artemisia Gentileschi and their contemporaries. In addition to Italian painting, the gallery owns the Mansfield collection of porcelain, the Williams collection of Chinese porcelain, the Stoddard collection of Greek vases, the Griggs collection of French Romanesque sculptures, the Huntingdon collection of furniture, the Garvin collection of arts and crafts from ‘America, and the famous Trumbull collection of American historical paintings and portraits of characters from the American Revolution.
Cultural institutes. – Until 1700 the state of Connecticut helped maintain Harvard University together with Massachusetts; but political and religious differences between the two states made them feel the need for a division. In 1701, the first specific projects were made, following which in 1702 an autonomous institution qualified as a collegiate school began to function in New Haven.. It virtually constituted the new university, which is therefore the third oldest in the United States. This school operated until 1716 in the places of residence of the various teachers, but in that year a donation of about a thousand very valuable volumes made people feel the need to build a building, for which the city of New Haven was chosen. Later, Elihu Yale’s donations of books and money gave his name to the school which in 1718 held courses for the first time in the new building. The name of Yale College was adopted in 1745 and that of Yale University in 1887. Although it arose outside any religious denomination, the institute adopted the Calvinism of the state in 1722. In 1802 the school had the first chair of chemistry, mineralogy and geology established in the United States; in 1810 the faculty of medicine; in 1822, that of theology and in 1824 that of jurisprudence. As early as 1847 courses in applied chemistry had been instituted and in 1852 those in engineering. This last section in 1854 was separated from the college and took the name of Yale Scientific School, changed in 1863 to that of Sheffield Scientific School in memory of the aid and numerous donations that from 1860 onwards he received from JE Sheffield, a citizen of New Haven. Yale University was also the first in America to have a School of Fine Arts, equally due to private generosity. The School of Religion organized as such in 1822 was at first congregationalist, now it is interfaith; the School of Law was established in 1824.
Currently the university is governed by a governing body made up of the governor and deputy governor of the state, ten professors and six graduates elected for six years. Teaching is divided into four major faculties: language, literature and the arts; history and social sciences; mathematics and natural sciences; engineering.
The university library, including the collections of all study sections, had a total of 1,902,512 volumes in 1928, including some very valuable collections. Among the rare books, a Gutenberg Bible deserves particular mention. The university’s art collections include a collection of Italian paintings from the 13th century. XIII to XVII, a gallery of historical portraits, a collection of Belgian wooden sculptures from the Renaissance, one of Greek and Italian vases, a collection of prints by Dürer and Rembrandt, etc. The Peabody Museum of Natural History is also important.
The university’s publishing activity (University Press) dates from 1908, but since 1818 the university has published the America Journal of Science and since 1892 the quarterly Yale Review. Other journals are published under the direction of students. In 1929 the university had 680 officials and teachers, 508 teaching and administrative assistants, 5025 students and 718 free listeners. The complex of buildings includes 77 buildings, among which only one of the century remains. XVIII.
In addition to Yale University, New Haven is home to a regular school established in 1893; Albertus Magnus College for Women (Catholic); Arnold College for Hygiene and Physical Education; of New Haven College and Connecticut College of Pharmacy. In addition to the public schools there are parish and many private schools that enjoy a wide reputation, including the Hopkins Grammar School which dates back to 1664.
In addition to the rich library of the university, the Free Public Library founded in 1886, which has approximately 204,000 volumes, is also worth mentioning.
New Haven is also home to cultural societies that perform notable business. The following can be mentioned: the American Oriental Society (founded in 1842, with a library of about 6000 volumes), which publishes the quarterly Journal of the American Oriental society and collections of studies on the East; the New Haven Colony Historical Society (founded in 1862, with a library of approximately 8,000 volumes); the Linguistic Society of America (1932); the American Eugenic Society (1925) and other medical associations; the Connecticut Society, Archaeological Society of America (1898), etc.
History. – New Haven was founded in 1638 by a group of Puritans who had sailed from Boston in 1637 to the Connecticut coast, under the leadership of John Davenport (1597-1670) and Theophilus Eaton. The settlers, who came from the English middle class, gave themselves a provisional order with a “plantation government”, which was replaced in June 1639 by a statute according to which the laws of God, as revealed by Holy Scripture, were the single criterion of conduct. Eaton was elected governor for twenty consecutive years until his death. Only members of the Puritan church could be citizens.
A committee of twelve was entrusted with the election of seven “colonies” whose task was to found the church by designating who was to be admitted. In 1643 the cities of Milford, Guilford and Stamford, and later Southold on Long Island and Branford were admitted with equal rights with two courts for the entire colony and a single supreme court with legislative powers. The laws of this theocratic state are still famous under the name of “Blue Laws” for their severity: absolute observation of Sunday rest and the death penalty for adultery. The settlers lived in constant expectation of the second coming of Christ. In 1662 a royal charter, granted without the consent of New Haven which until 1640 had called itself from its Indian name Quinnipiac, united the colony to the older colony of Connecticut. From 1701 to 1873 it was the double capital of the state with Hartford. On 5 July 1779 the city suffered a brief English invasion. From 1780 it assumed importance as a port and industrial center, obtained the status of city in 1784, modified in 1869, 1881 and 1899.