Libraries. – Apart from the technical libraries dependent on the respective institutes, and the civic and provincial ones, of no special importance, the Austrian libraries accessible to scholars can be divided into the following classes: 1. national; 2. university students; 3. scientific (Studienbibliotheken); 4. chapter and monastic libraries.
According to EHUACOM.COM, the National, until 1920 Hofbibliothek, was founded in the second half of the century. XVI; book purchase endowment 122,008 shillings (the fixed endowment begins in 1572); it has about 1,200,000 works and about 100,000 loose sheets, a very important collection on the world war and an almost unique collection of manuscripts: 130,000 Western, including many Italians, 1015 Greek, 2360 Arab, Persian and Turkish manuscripts as well as 460 other oriental ones. To this are added a remarkable collection of incunabula (9000) and autographs (35.000); one of geographical maps, about 110,000; one of papyri (11,000 Copts, 10,000 Greeks and about 60,000 Orientals). At the end of the century XVI the court library reached 9000 volumes including 1600 manuscripts; its reorganization, due to P. Lambek (1663-80), began a flourishing period that includes the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Printed catalogs of manuscripts and accessions. (Guide: O. Smital, Die Hofbibliothek, 1920; history: JF v. Mosel, Geschichte der Hofbibliothek zu Wien, 1835).
University students. – Of course, the one in Vienna, founded in 1807, with about 1,000,000 works, 665 incun, is of greater importance. and 1033 ms.; and with an annual increase of 20,000 vol.; they follow that of Innsbruck with just under 400,000 vols. and 1150 ms., founded in 1746, which can be complemented by the collection of 40,000 vols. of historical and Tyrolean works from the Ferdinandeum museum; and that of Graz, which is the oldest (1586), with 330,000 vols., 2005 mss. and 1145 incun flanked by the Styrian provincial library, which, built in 1868, reaches 235,000 vols. For the choice of scientific material, the Austrian university students are perfectly suited to the needs of the universities, whose individual institutes and seminaries also have their own book collections, which are often quite remarkable. They receive the obligatory copy of the printed matter in the relative provinces. The subject catalog of the University of Vienna, due to the librarians Holzmann and Bohatta, is worthy of much consideration. The regulations of the Austrian university libraries are based on that of 1825. (Guide and history: F. Grassauer, Handbuch der österr. Universitätsund Studienbibliotheken, 1882).
Scientific: they replace the university students in the provincial capitals that do not have universities and like these they receive the compulsory copy of the works printed in the province. They are: in Klagenfurt (Carinthia) with about 77,500 vols. and nearly 300 msds.; dates back to the century. XVI and is completed by the provincial (Rudolfinum, 20,000 vols.); in Linz (Upper Austria) with 68,000 vols., about 20,000 among papers and engravings and 1000 incun., founded in 1774; in Salzburg with 120,000 vols., 1500 mss. In the same city the civic has about 70,000 vols. and 1300 ms. the importance of these Studienbibliotheken lies in the regional character of the collections.
Religious. The main nucleus is made up of Benedictine libraries of ancient foundation (XII century) and therefore important for the collections of mss.: Admont (Styria), year 1074, with almost 100,000 voiumi and a beautiful collection of woodcuts and engravings; Klosterneuburg (Lower Austria), year 1106 with 120,000 vols., 900 incun. and 1250 ms.; Kremsmünster (Styria) with 100,000 vols. and 960 mss.; Melk (Lower Austria), year 1089, with 80,000 vols., 900 incun. and 1900 ms.; from this abbey the Benedictine reform spread after the council of Constance which, increasing the interest of studies, opened a period of flourishing for the libraries of the order in the Austrian and Bavarian provinces to which they owe their historical importance. In addition to the four libraries mentioned which, also for the sanctuity of the site, deserve particular importance, Fontes rerum austriacarum, XXI), by Göttweig (year 1083) with 1111 mss., Including one from the 13th century VI, of Heiligen Kreuz (Baden, year 1126) whose stock was increased with 81 ms. of the convent of Neukloster, of Sankt Paul (Carinthia) with 1300 mss. and important arcl.. ivistic collection, Seitenstetten and Zwettl (respectively year 1112 and year 1138), each with 420 ms., and Nonnberg of Salzburg, which is one of the oldest foundations of the order. Among the capitulars, one of the most interesting is that of Sankt Florian (Upper Austria). (On the medieval funds of these libraries, see T. Gottlieb, Mittelalterliche Bibliothekskataloge Osterreichs, I, 1915).
Science Society. – The most famous is the Academy of Sciences, founded in 1847, which publishes Acts (Sitzungsberichte), Memorie (Denkschriften), Reports (Anzeiger), Almanac (Almanach), a monthly chemistry periodical (Monatshefte für Chemie) and, moreover,, two historical publications: the Fontes rerum austriacarum and the Archiv für österreichische Geschichte. The Academy has its own technical institutes: one radiological, one biological and an excellent phonographic archive (Phonogrammarchiv). Furthermore, numerous scientific and literary academies in Vienna are specialized in individual branches of knowledge; very many of them have their own periodical publications (cf. Minerva, Jahrbuch der Gelehrten Welt, 1926, II, pp. 2294-2300). The academies of the provincial capitals have purely local importance.