State of the USA (295,260 km 2 with 6,338,755 inhabitants in 2007), in the region of the Rocky Mountains, bordered to the south by the Mexico; capital Phoenix. It includes to the north a portion of the plateau of Colorado (Mount Humphreys, 3859 m), engraved by the waters of the Colorado River in very deep furrows and picturesque gorges (canyons), destinations of intense tourism. AS a desert plain (Gila Desert), crossed by the Gila River. Remarkable mineral resources: copper (the largest American deposits), precious metals (gold and silver) and uranium.
According to abbreviationfinder, the territory of the Arizona was purchased by the US in 1848, following the war with Mexico, except for the south portion of the Gila River which was purchased in 1853 with the Gadsden Purchase. In 1863 it was organized in a separate territory and in 1912 it was admitted among the States of the Union.
The vegetation consists mainly of xerophilous steppes, of the same type as those of Mexico, with the characteristic succulents (Cereus, Opuntia, Mammillaria) and with the xerophilous monocotyledons of the genus Agave, Yucca, Dasylirion; in the highest part of the plateau, however, there are forests of pines, cedars and cypresses. Vegetation is almost completely lacking in southwest Arizona. (Gila Desert).
The population of Arizona has been increasing rapidly over the past few decades; not, however, as in other states of the Union. It was 87,000 residents in 1890, 121,000 in 1900, 204,000 in 1910, 334,000 – as already mentioned – in 1920. Of these, 296,000 turned out to be White, 30,000 Indians and 8,000 Negroes. The Indians (Navaho, Mohave, Yuma, Papago, Apache, Zuñi), whose condition has been improving more and more, live almost all in the reserves, dealing with agriculture. Of the Whites, 23.4% (78,000) are immigrants (60,000 Mexicans, 2,900 British, 1960 Canadians, 1,500 Germans, 1,260 Italians and 1,200 Irish).
The density of the population, always very small, varies greatly from one part of the region to another. The most populated areas are the valleys of the Gila and the Salt River, its tributary. 35.2% of the population lives in urban centers, which are neither many nor large. The state capital is Phoenix, on the Salt River, with 45,000 residents (1924). Also noteworthy is Tucson (22,000 residents), In the southern part of the country, home to the state university (founded in 1885: in 1923-24 it had 2339 students and 122 professors) and a school of agriculture. Other centers of some importance are: Flagstaff and Winslow, on the San Francisco Plateau; Prescott, at the foot of the Bradshaw Mountains: Morenci, near the border with New Mexico; Douglas and Nogales border towns with Mexico; Yuma, on the Colorado, also a border town.
Arizona, given its arid climate, is a country not very suitable for agriculture. Only along perennial streams and where irrigation is possible, the soil is productive. The government of the Union and that of the state have provided for the construction of large lakes-reservoirs for irrigation purposes: among these the most notable is Lake Roosevelt, in which the waters of the Salt River are stored. Other dams, for irrigation and electricity, have been made on the lower Colorado, on the Gila (San Carlos dam), and again on the Salt River, downstream of Lake Roosevelt. The main agricultural products are cotton, wheat, maize and citrus fruits.
Since the country has large pastures, breeding is in favorable conditions. In 1928, Arizona owned 1,267,000 sheep, 581,000 cattle, 98,000 horses and 17,000 pigs. Remarkable is the production of wool.
The subsoil is rich in useful minerals, especially copper, gold, silver, lead and zinc. In 1925, minerals were extracted for a total value of 114.2 million dollars.
Communications are very scarce: there are in operation (1925) about 3855 km. of railways. But, being on the direct southern rail line between the Atlantic and California, Arizona is visited by a considerable number of tourists, who come to admire the natural beauty and interesting prehistoric ruins.
Arizona was elevated to the rank of state of the Union on February 14, 1912. It has a 19-member senate and a 46-member chamber of deputies. Executive power is entrusted, as usual, to a governor. At the National Congress of the Union, Arizona is represented by one lawmaker and two senators. Administratively, it is divided into 14 counties.
According to countryaah, Arizona has the following main cities:
Capital of the state of Arizona (United States) and capital of Maricopa County, founded in the second half of the century. XIX on the Salt River, tributary of the Gila River (Colorado), 346 m. above sea level. It has a subtropical climate, with an average annual temperature of 22 °, 3; the winters are very mild (January 10, 2) and the summers are extremely hot (July 32, 2), with very strong differences between absolute minimums and maximums (−5 °, 6; 46 °, 7); very little rainfall (170 mm. per year). The city had 3152 inhabitants in 1890, 5544 in 1900, 11.134 in 1910, 29.053 in 1920, 48.118 in 1930. In that year the whites born to foreign parents were 74%; whites born abroad 4.6% (in total 2226 individuals, mainly British, Canadian and German; Italians 72); the Negroes 4.9%; elements of another color, 16.5%, mostly Mexicans (7293 people). In large industry, 1,456 workers worked in 1929. The city is located in an important region for mineral reserves and agriculture, favored by grandiose irrigation systems, and is an active commercial center. In winter, due to the excellent climatic conditions, Phoenix is a very popular stay. It is served by the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads lines.